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Environmental Protection Act (Wet milieubeheer – Wm)

The Environmental Protection Act (Wet milieubeheer – Wm) is the main environmental law in the Netherlands. It was passed in 1993 and has been amended several times since then. The Wm aims to protect the environment from pollution and other forms of environmental damage.

The Wm covers a wide range of environmental issues, including:

  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Soil pollution
  • Waste management
  • Noise pollution
  • Radiation
  • Nature conservation
  • Sustainable development

The Wm is enforced by a variety of government agencies, including the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management, the provinces, and the municipalities.

As of January 1, 2024, the Wm has been largely replaced by the Omgevingswet. However, the Wm still applies to a number of environmental issues, including:

  • Substances
  • Waste
  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • Public access to environmental information
  • Environmental liability

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